A pragmatic analysis on the types and the purposes of address terms used by the main character in Jane Austen’s “EMMA”

Miftahush Shalihah


This research aims to describe the types of address terms used by the main character in Jane Austen’s EMMA and  to reveal the main character’s purposes in using types of address terms. Further, this study employs descriptive-qualitative method. The result of the research can be concluded as follows. First, there are 8 types of address terms. They are (a) title plus last name, (b) first name, (c) full name, (d) pet name, (e) kinship terms, (f) title plus full name, (g) occupational terms, and (h) title alone. The most frequent use of address terms is title plus last name since it is used to respect the addressees. Second, there are 6 purposes of address terms. They are (a) to show politeness, (b) to show intimacy, (c) to show social status, (d) to keep inferiority, (e) to show friendship, and (f) to show solidarity. From the study, the writer found that the address terms are mostly used in purpose to be polite to the addressees.



DOI: 10.26905/enjourme.v2i2.2747



Address terms, function of address terms, purpose of address terms, types of address terms.


Austen, J. (1968). Emma. Everyman’s Library: London.

Austen, J. (2003). Stories to Remember. Emma. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama: Jakarta.

Austen-Leigh, J. Forms of Address and titles in Jane Austen. Jane Austen Society of North America, http://www.jasna.org/html. Retrieved on 10 March 2008

Chaika, E. (1982). Language the social mirror. Newburry House Publisher Inc.: USA.

Fasold, R. (1990). The Sociolinguistics of Language. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Holmes, J. (2001). An Introduction To Sociolinguistics. Second Edition. Longman: Malaysia.

Selinger, W.H. and Shohamy, E. (1989). Second Language Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Trudgill, Peter. (1992). Introducing Language and Society. London: Penguin Books.

Wardaugh, R. (1998). An Introduction to Linguistics. Third Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher Ltd.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

EnJourMe (English Journal of Merdeka) : Culture, Language, and Teaching of English
D3 English Program
University of Merdeka Malang
Jl. Terusan Halimun 11B Malang, 65146, East Java, Indonesia
Phone: +62 899 0000 703
Email: enjourme.journal@unmer.ac.id