Leadership dimension: increasing employee satisfaction and engagement in travel industry

Nova Eviana, Rudhi Achmadi


Employee engagement becomes one of the most important driving factors in the success of business processes because it can provide high motivation for the employees' positive behavior and support the achievement of the travel company goals. Positive behavior includes striving to provide the best service and ensure consumer satisfaction. Various studies explain the relationship of employee engagement with leadership and employee satisfaction factors. This study aims to analyze the effect of leadership and employee satisfaction on fostering employee engagement. The research instrument used questionnaires as a data-gathering tool. About 77 travel agency employees participated as respondents based on accidental sampling techniques. Data analysis used SEM-PLS with Smart PLS software. The results showed that leadership affects  employee satisfaction and engagement. Leadership having fair behavior and being accommodative to the employees’ needs and interests will foster employee satisfaction, which ultimately affects employees engagement. Therefore, it is important for the company to improve the leadership factor


Employee Engagement; Employee Satisfaction; Leadership

Full Text:



Aga, D. A. (2016). Transactional Leadership and Project Success: The Moderating Role of Goal Clarity. Procedia Computer Science, 100, 517–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.190

Alonderiene, R., & Majauskaite, M. (2016). Leadership style and job satisfaction in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 140–164. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-08-2014-0106

Antonakis, J., & House, R. J. (2014). Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational-transactional leadership theory. Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), 746–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.04.005

Asgari, A., Mezginejad, S., & Taherpour, F. (2019). The role of leadership styles in organizational citizenship behavior through the mediation of perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Innovar, 30(75), 87–98. https://doi.org/10.15446/innovar.v30n75.83259

Ashton, A. S. (2018). How human resources management best practice influence employee satisfaction and job retention in the Thai hotel industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2), 175–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332845.2017.1340759

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 207–218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588–606. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Blomme, R. J., Kodden, B., & Beasley-Suffolk, A. (2015). Leadership theories and the concept of work engagement: Creating a conceptual framework for management implications and research. Journal of Management and Organization, 21(2), 125–144. https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2014.71

Chen, Y. R. R., & Hung-Baesecke, C. J. F. (2014). Examining the Internal Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Leader Behavior and Employee CSR Participation. Communication Research Reports, 31(2), 210–220. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2014.907148

Choi, S. B., Tran, T. B. H., & Park, B. Il. (2015). Inclusive leadership and work engagement: Mediating roles of affective organizational commitment and creativity. Social Behavior and Personality, 43(6), 931–944. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2015.43.6.931

Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S., & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review and Test of Its Relations With Task and Contextual Performance. Personnel Psychology, 64, 89–136. http://web.a.ebscohost.com.tcsedsystem.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=762314f7-db10-45ee-b18f-6de541ad2ea1%40sessionmgr4009

Davies, G., Mete, M., & Whelan, S. (2018). When employer brand image aids employee satisfaction and engagement. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness, 5(1), 64–80. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOEPP-03-2017-0028

Decuypere, A., & Schaufeli, W. (2020). Leadership and work engagement: Exploring explanatory mechanisms. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 34(1), 69–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/2397002219892197

Enwereuzor, I. K., Ugwu, L. I., & Eze, O. A. (2018). How Transformational Leadership Influences Work Engagement Among Nurses: Does Person–Job Fit Matter? Western Journal of Nursing Research, 40(3), 346–366. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945916682449

Extremera, N., Mérida-López, S., Sánchez-álvarez, N., & Quintana-Orts, C. (2018). How does emotional intelligence make one feel better at work? The mediational role of work engagement. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091909

Fabio, A. Di, & Peiró, J. M. (2018). Human capital sustainability leadership to promote sustainable development and healthy organizations: A new scale. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072413

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gibbons, J. (2006). No Title Employee Engagement: A Review of Current Research and Its Implications, Conference Board. New York: Conference Board.

Hair, Joe F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128

Hair, Joseph F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. In V. Knight, K. Koscielak, L. Barret, & G. Dickens (Eds.), Sage Publication Inc. Los Angeles: SAGE Publication Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.002

Hair, Joseph F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS SEM) (2nd ed.). SAGE Publication Inc.

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common Beliefs and Reality About PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428114526928

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Jun, W., Yuyan, L., Yao, C., & Zhixue, L. (2017). Employee satisfaction assessment from the perspective of demand side—based on G1-FUZZY-DSS. Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, 20(4), 781–792. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720529.2017.1358861

Khan, M. M., Mubarik, M. S., Ahmed, S. S., Islam, T., Khan, E., Rehman, A., & Sohail, F. (2021). My meaning is my engagement: exploring the mediating role of meaning between servant leadership and work engagement. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, May. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-08-2020-0320

Lambert, A., Jones, R. P., & Clinton, S. (2021). Employee engagement and the service profit chain in a quick-service restaurant organization. Journal of Business Research, 135(August 2020), 214–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.06.009

Li, P., Sun, J. M., Taris, T. W., Xing, L., & Peeters, M. C. W. (2021). Country differences in the relationship between leadership and employee engagement: A meta-analysis. Leadership Quarterly, 32(1), 101458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2020.101458

Loerbroks, A., Glaser, J., Vu-Eickmann, P., & Angerer, P. (2017). Physician burnout, work engagement and the quality of patient care. Occupational Medicine, 67(5), 356–362. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqx051

Matzler, K., & Renzl, B. (2007). Personality traits, employee satisfaction and affective commitment. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 18(5), 589–598.

Preethi, R. V. S., & Valliappan, M. (2015). Relationship Between Employees Engagement and Satisfaction at Ideal Fastener India Private Limited. IJER, 12(2), 399–404.

Rabiul, M. K., & Yean, T. F. (2021). Leadership styles, motivating language, and work engagement: An empirical investigation of the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92(March 2020), 102712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102712

Robert, V., & Vandenberghe, C. (2021). Laissez-Faire Leadership and Affective Commitment: the Roles of Leader-Member Exchange and Subordinate Relational Self-concept. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(4), 533–551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-020-09700-9

Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635–674. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X08321509

Salau, O., Oludayo, O., Falola, H., Olokundun, M., Ibidunni, S., & Atolagbe, T. (2018). Integrated datasets on transformational leadership attributes and employee engagement: The moderating role of job satisfaction in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry. Data in Brief, 19, 2329–2335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.06.032

Samanta, I., & Lamprakis, A. (2018). Modern leadership types and outcomes: The case of Greek public sector. Management (Croatia), 23(1), 173–191. https://doi.org/10.30924/mjcmi/2018.23.1.173

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–92. https://doi.org/10.9790/487x-1810041925

Shin, D., & Konrad, A. M. (2017). Causality Between High-Performance Work Systems and Organizational Performance. Journal of Management, 43(4), 973–997. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314544746

Sholihin, M., & Ratmono, D. (2020). Analisis SEM-PLS dengan WarpPLS 7.0: untuk Hubungan Nonlinier dalam Penelitian Sosial dan Bisnis.

Shrotryia, V. K., & Dhanda, U. (2019). Content Validity of Assessment Instrument for Employee Engagement. SAGE Open, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018821751

Sohail, M. S., & Jang, J. (2017). Understanding the relationships among internal marketing practices, job satisfaction, service quality and customer satisfaction: an empirical investigation of Saudi Arabia’s service employees. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 17(2), 67–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/15980634.2017.1294343

Song, J. H., Bae, S. H., Park, S., & Kim, H. K. (2013). Influential factors for knowledge creation practices of CTE teachers: Mutual impact of perceived school support, transformational leadership, and work engagement. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 467–482. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-013-9283-8

Wake, M., & Green, W. (2019). Relationship between employee engagement scores and service quality ratings: Analysis of the National Health Service staff survey across 97 acute NHS Trusts in England and concurrent Care Quality Commission outcomes (2012-2016). BMJ Open, 9(7). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026472

Wen, X., Gu, L., & Wen, S. (2019). Job satisfaction and job engagement: Empirical evidence from food safety regulators in Guangdong, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 208, 999–1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.089

Wisse, B., & Sleebos, E. (2016). When Change Causes Stress: Effects of Self-construal and Change Consequences. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(2), 249–264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-015-9411-z

Zengin, S., Gülle, M., & Kaya, E. (2018). Study of academician leadership type and innovational approach. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(12), 2747–2756. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.061208

Zhang, T., C. Avery, G., Bergsteiner, H., & More, E. (2014). The relationship between leadership paradigms and employee engagement. Journal of Global Responsibility, 5(1), 4–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/jgr-02-2014-0006

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26905/jpp.v7i1.7195


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona

Editorial Office    
Address:Jl. Bandung No. 1 kota Malang 65113  
Mobile / Whatsapp:+6281336986201 (Anisa Zuhria Sugeha)  
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona has been indexed on:


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

web statistics View My Stats