Trust as a mediation of transformational leadership relationships and welfare of hotel employees psychology

Yustisia Kristiana, Rosdiana Sijabat, Niko Sudibjo, Innocentius Bernarto


The hotel industry is one that is vulnerable to crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The condition can create an uncertain outlook for the hotel industry due to a decline in demand. This condition can create vulnerability for employees. Transformational leadership influences employees' psychological well-being and trust that the most significant thing about the link between transformational leaders and their employees. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of (1) transformational leadership on trust; (2) transformational leadership on psychological well-being; (3) trust on psychological well-being; and (4) trust as a mediator in the correlation between transformational leadership and psychological well-being. This study is a quantitative study, with a cross-sectional approach. The sampling technique was purposive sampling with 162 employees from 4 and 5-star hotels in DKI Jakarta Province as respondents. Data analysis using PLS-SEM. The findings revealed that the four hypotheses proposed in the study, and the results of data analysis showed that all the hypotheses stated were accepted. The implication of this research is to become a reference for management to improve psychological well-being by developing transformational leadership and trust. This study has limitations, in future research, it would be possible to examine the overall employee well-being and be carried out in other locations to overcome the limitations of the study.


Hospitality; Transformational Leadership; Trust; Psychological Well-Being

Full Text:



Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & McKee, M. C. (2007). Transformational leadership and psychological well-being: The mediating role of meaningful work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 193–203.

Arustei, C. C. (2013). Employees’ Organizational Commitment Challenges - a Hotel Industry Perspective. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 1(3), 497–519.

Baker, M. G. (2020). Nonrelocatable Occupations at Increased Risk During Pandemics: United States, 2018. American Journal of Public Health, 110(8), 1126–1132.

Bartram, T., & Casimir, G. (2007). The relationship between leadership and follower in‐role performance and satisfaction with the leader. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 4–19.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Blake, K. D., Blendon, R. J., & Viswanath, K. (2010). Employment and Compliance with Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Recommendations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(2), 212–218.

Chen, C.-C. (2021). Psychological tolls of COVID-19 on industry employees. Annals of Tourism Research 89. Published online October 2020. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2020.103080.

Dai, Y. de, Dai, Y. Y., Chen, K. Y., & Wu, H. C. (2013). Transformational vs transactional leadership: Which is better?: A study on employees of international tourist hotels in Taipei City. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), 760–778.

de Neve, J.-E., Diener, E., Louis, T., & Xuereb, C. (2013). The Objective Benefits of Subjective Well-Being. In J. Helliwell, R. Layard, & J. Sachs (Eds.), World Happiness Report 2013. UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network.

Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611–628.

Dirks, K. T., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2004). Trust in leaders: Existing research and emerging issues. In Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches (pp. 21–40). Russell Sage Foundation.

Gilbreath, B., & Benson, P. G. (2004). The contribution of supervisor behaviour to employee psychological well-being. Work & Stress, 18(3), 255–266.

Goodwin, V. L., Whittington, J. L., Murray, B., & Nichols, T. (2011). Moderator or mediator? examining the role of trust in the transformational leadership paradigm. Journal of Managerial Issues, 23(4), 409–425.

Hamouche, S. (2020). COVID-19 and employees’ mental health: stressors, moderators, and agenda for organizational actions. Emerald Open Research, 2, 15.

Jain, P., Duggal, T., & Ansari, A. H. (2019). Examining the mediating effect of trust and psychological well-being on transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 26(5), 1517–1532.

Jiang, Y., & Wen, J. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on hotel marketing and management: a perspective article. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(8), 2563–25732573.

Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 949–964.<949::AID-JOB64>3.0.CO;2-F

Kang, J., Ji, Y., Baek, W., & Byon, K. K. (2020). Structural Relationship among Physical Self-Efficacy, Psychological Well-Being, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Hotel Employees: Moderating Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23), 8856.

Kelloway, E. K., & Barling, J. (2010). Leadership development as an intervention in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 24(3), 260–279.

Kelloway, E. K., Turner, N., Barling, J., & Loughlin, C. (2012). Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: The mediating role of employee trust in leadership. Work & Stress, 26(1), 39–55.

Keyes, C. L. M., & Waterman, M. B. (2003). Dimensions of Well-Being and Mental Health in Adulthood. In Well-Being. Psychology Press.

Kock, N., & Hadaya, P. (2018). Minimum sample size estimation in PLS-SEM: The inverse square root and gamma-exponential methods. Information Systems Journal, 28(1), 227–261.

Kotera, Y., Adhikari, P., & Sheffield, D. (2021). Mental health of UK hospitality workers: shame, self-criticism and self-reassurance. The Service Industries Journal, 41(15–16), 1076–1096.

Kristiana, Y., & Tukiran, M. (2021). A systematic review: Is transformational leadership effective for organizational commitment?. Journal of Industrial Engineering & Management Research, 2(4), 266-273.

Kuckertz, A., Brändle, L., Gaudig, A., Hinderer, S., Morales Reyes, C. A., Prochotta, A., Steinbrink, K. M., & Berger, E. S. C. (2020). Startups in times of crisis – A rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 13.

Liu, J., Siu, O.-L., & Shi, K. (2009). Transformational Leadership and Employee Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Trust in the Leader and Self-Efficacy. Applied Psychology, 59(3).

López, J., Perez-Rojo, G., Noriega, C., Carretero, I., Velasco, C., Martinez-Huertas, J. A., López-Frutos, P., & Galarraga, L. (2020). Psychological well-being among older adults during the COVID-19 outbreak: a comparative study of the young–old and the old–old adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 32(11), 1365–1370.

Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). The how of happiness: A scientific approach to getting the life you want. Penguin Press.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.

McKee, M. C., Driscoll, C., Kelloway, E. K., & Kelley, E. (2011). Exploring linkages among transformational leadership, workplace spirituality and well-being in health care workers. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 8(3), 233–255.

Mor Barak, M. E., Cherin, D. A., & Berkman, S. (1998). Organizational and Personal Dimensions in Diversity Climate. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34(1), 82–104.

Neeraj, P. (2009). The impact perceived leadership styles on job satisfaction and ethical intention of employees: with trust as a moderator.

O’Neill, J., & Davis, K. (2011). Work stress and well-being in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30, 385–90. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.07.007.

Padave, P., Kanekar, R., & Chande, K. (2021). Emprical study on organisational commitment of employees in Indian Hotel Industry. Materials Today: Proceedings.

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719–727.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2020). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (8th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept-based theory. Organization Science, 4(4), 577–594.

Sivanathan, N., Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., & Barling, J. (2012). Leading Well: Transformational Leadership and Well-Being. In Positive Psychology in Practice (pp. 241–255). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sosik, J. J., & Godshalk, V. M. (2000). Leadership styles, mentoring functions received, and job-related stress: A conceptual model and preliminary study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(4), 365–390.<365::AID-JOB14>3.0.CO;2-H

Sousa-Lima, M., Michel, J. W., & Caetano, A. (2013). Clarifying the importance of trust in organizations as a component of effective work relationships. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(2), 418–427.

Sy, T., Côté, S., & Saavedra, R. (2005). The contagious leader: Impact of the leader’s mood on the mood of group members, group affective tone, and group processes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 295–305.

Tan, H. H., & Tan, C. S. F. (2000). Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126(2), 241–260.

Uysal, M., Sirgy, M. J., Woo, E., & Kim, H. L. (2016). Quality of Life (QOL) and well-being research in tourism. Tourism Management, 53, 244–61.

Varga, S., Mistry, T. G., Ali, F., & Cobanoglu, C. (2021). Employee perceptions of wellness programs in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33(10), 3331–3354.

Wat, D., & Shaffer, M. A. (2005). Equity and relationship quality influences on organizationalcitizenship behaviors: the mediating role of trust in the supervisor and empowerment. Personnel Review, 34(4), 406-422.

Wong, K. C., & Chan, A. K. (2020). Work antecedents, work–life interference and psychological well-being among hotel employees in Macau. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 19(2), 131–47.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona

Editorial Office    
Address:Jl. Bandung No. 1 kota Malang 65113  
Mobile / Whatsapp:+6281336986201 (Anisa Zuhria Sugeha)  
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona has been indexed on:


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

web statistics View My Stats