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Author Guidelines

Manuscript Submission

The manuscript submitted in form of softcopy by using OJS (Open Journal System). Manuscript submission also attached with the complete  curriculum vitae of author and manuscript form refers to following instruction below:

Please download Manuscript Template and Agreement Letter Journal AFRe:

Manuscript Template Agreement Letter

(please click the following link)


AFRE Accounting and Financial Review is a journal published by The Graduate School Universitas Merdeka Malang. AFRE publishes three in a year (on March, July  and November) accepting articles in the fields of behavioral accounting, public accounting, auditing, taxation, corporate finance, banking finance, MSME finance and government finance with the standard of research method for publication. These articles can be written by researchers, academics, practitioners, and observers in the field of accounting and financial management who are interested in conducting research in the field of accounting and financial management.


  1. All manuscripts must be submitted through AFRE Accounting and Financial Review Online  Submission E-Journal Portal  

  2. The author submitting a manuscript do have understanding that if the corresponding paper  is accepted, then the copyright will be assigned to AFRE Accounting and Financial ReviewThe Graduate School Universitas Merdeka Malang as publisher of the journal. To do so, we  obliged the author to submit the signed Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) form  (we ecpect author to download the document, and then scan and upload it after signed) 

  3. The article is original guaranteed by the writer and is not published by the other journals/ proceedings. 

  4. The statement contribution toward the development of science and technology is from the new findings/ideas/opinions which prioritize the current primary references at the latest ten years. We expect the author to clearly give a statement of novelty within introductory section. (e.g. there are few numbers of research….; the novelty of this  research…; etc.) 

  5. The article is an empirical study. The sharpness of critically analysis and synthesis is prioritized. 

  6. The review process is conducted in double-blind review process with the peer group system, which is reinforced by the qualified reviewers in their field. 

  7. The article is written according to the rule of JDM and an editorial team reserves the right to revise the style of writing with a note that it does not change the intent and quality of the article.

  8. Questionnaires and other instruments. Manuscript articles that use primary data research or experimentation must also include the surveys document as the supplementary document. 

  9. Authors are obliged to send the results of data processing as well as tables and the original image file via email. 

  10. Results of the assessment possibilities articles can be: 

           a. Accepted with minor revisions. 

           b. Received with major revisions. 

           c. Suggested sent to another appropriate journal. 

           d. Rejected.


A. The Writing Guidance 

  1. The article is well-written in English. Typed single space for the abstract, content and references. Written by font Book Antiqua 10 pt size and indent for paragraphs is 1cm. 

  2. The paper size is A4, it is two columns and the page setup is: top margin 4cm; bottom margin 4cm; left margin 3cm and right margin 3cm.  

  3. The font size for the title is Book Antiqua 14pt; it is capitalized, bolded and left justified.  4. After the title, it is followed by the author (without the title). It is Book Antiqua 12pt, the first letter of each word is capitalized, bold and centered.

  4. Under the author, it is the institution and the email at Book Antiqua 11pt, capitalized each word, without bolded and center justified.  
    For example: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Merdeka Malang, Indonesia. 

  1. Correspondence address of author is listed on the left under Indonesian abstract for articles in English, accompanied by a corresponding email address. 
    For example: Jl. Terusan Raya Dieng No. 62-64 Malang, 65145, Indonesia E-mail: 

  1. The font size for the sub-part in the article is Book Antiqua 10pt, capitalized each word, bolded and left justified and without any bullet and numbering.

  2. The font for abctract is Book Antiqua 9pt.

  3. The font for body text in the article is Book Antiqua 10pt.

  4. Table. 

           All table form as an example. Table title is placed on the table with left justified; font the title table and content table is  Book Antiqua 9pt. For example:

Table 1. Market Share and Efficiency


Original Sample 

t Statistics (|O/STERR|)

P Values





















Note: WS = whistleblowing system, FA = forensic audit, IA = investigative audit, FP = fraud prevention

  1. Writing the figure
    Writing the title of figures and graphics placed under the pictures with center justified. Font size title of figure is Book Antiqua 9pt. The total page does not exceed 25 pages, including the references and appendices (if any).

                 Figure 1. Several Asian and World Stock Indices)

B. The Article Systematic 

The article systematically includes the title; the identity of the author (without a title); abstract; keywords; introduction (without sub-sections), method; result and discussion; conclusion and recommendation, and references. While discussion about literature review and previous studies included in the introduction or result and analysis. 

C. The Article Format  

Title. The title must be written specific, effective, and informative which is seen from the straightforwardness of the writing. So that once read, it can be captured comprehensively. The number of words does not exceed 14 words.

Author Data. Full Name without Degree, name of the institution where the author is affiliated, and complete address including postal code, author's correspondence address (phone and email). 

Abstract. The minimum scope contained in the abstract is problems, research objectives, methods, findings, and implications. Compiled in 1 (one) paragraph. Presented at the beginning of the article, justify, Book Antiqua 9. The number of words is between 150–200 words.

Keyword. Keywords must be chosen carefully and be able to reflect the concepts/variables contained in the article, with a number of between four to six keywords. Keywords are written in English.

The JELclassification system was developed for use in the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) and is a standard method of classifying scholarly literature in the field of economics

Introduction. Contains the background contains an introduction to the substance of the article, and the reasons behind the article, both theoretical and empirical. Presenting theoretical concepts, thoughts, and findings of previous research to show gap research, comparison, and strengthening as well as sharpening discussion, and analysis. In the end, the research objectives are stated in the form of flowing paragraphs and do not use subtitles, and do not use bullets, or numbering in the introduction. References are indicated by writing the author's surname/last name and year of publication, without page numbers.

Hypothesis Development. The development of the hypothesis proposes a logical theory supported by empirical studies that are used as the basis for formulating the hypothesis. Each hypothesis put forward is preceded by theoretical logic and empirical studies.

Data and Method. Contains the research design used (methods, data sources, population and research samples, data collection techniques, research variables, and their operations and data analysis techniques) so that readers can reproduce the research properly.

Results. The results are presented in a systematic, concise, and informative manner which is extracted from the data, not the data as it is. Narrative explanations with illustrations of tables, pictures, and others must be legible. The presentation of data tables is not a copy and paste from a data processing program, but must be rearranged according to needs and presented in a concise and informative manner. Each illustration of a table, figure, or other must be cited by reference to the number of the table or figure. The use of tables, figures, and others is only as support to clarify the discussion and is limited to truly substantial support. 

Discussion. The discussion suggests the interpretation of the results in accordance with the research objectives and hypotheses (if any). The order of discussion is the same as the research objective. The discussion of the results is argumentative regarding the relevance of the results, theories, previous research, and empirical facts found, as well as showing the novelty of the findings.

Conclusions and Suggestions. Contains a conclusion with a broad generalization of the discussion of research results that is written briefly and clearly, showing clarity of the contribution of the findings, the creation of new theories, and the possibility of developing research that can be done in the future. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and research suggestions are also written in flowing paragraphs. 

Acknowledgments and Appreciation. This section is only written if desired. Contains acknowledgments and appreciation to parties who are considered to have contributed significantly to the completion of the research. 

References. The degree of sophistication of materials referred to in the last 10 years. The list of references is expected to be 80% of primary sources originating from national and international research articles. Write references that really referenced in the article and arrange it in alphabetical. Writing citations that referenced in the script should use reference application (reference manager) such as Mendeley, Endnote, Zotero, RefWorks, and others. Also, the format for the references are using the referencing style from American Psychological Association (APA).

Example of references: 

For academic journals: 

Carp, M., Pavaloaia, L., Afrasinei, M. B., & Georgescu, I. E. (2019). Is sustainability reporting a business strategy for firm’s growth? Empirical study on the Romanian capital market. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(3).

Orazalin, N., Mahmood, M., & Narbaev, T. (2019). The impact of sustainability performance indicators on financial stability: evidence from the Russian oil and gas industry. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(8), 8157–8168.

For books: 

Luthans, F. (2011). Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach.  United States: McGraw-Hill. 

For papers in seminars: 

Rozemeijer, F. A & Van Weele, A. J. (2005). Making the Most of Corporate  Purchasing: Understanding Organizational Behaviour, in Calvi,  R. and Merminod, N., Researches in purchasing and supply management, Proceedings. Presented at the 14th IPSERA  Conference, Archamps, France. 893-903. 

For unpublished thesis or dissertation: 

Basnet, A. (2015). Capital Structure Choice of Financial Firms: Evidence from Nepalese Commercial Banks. Unpublished Dissertaion Departemen of Finance and Statistic Hanken School of Economic.

For internet sources: 

Larashita, D. (2020). Penerapan CSR untuk meningkatkan kualitas Hidup Masyarakat Indonesia. Available at: /23 Juni 2020.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).

    There are charges for publishing with In AFRE (Accounting and Financial Review).

    If you receive an email requesting payment in relation to your article (for example for editing or reviewing services), then you should ignore and delete the email - it is not a legitimate AFRe email. If you are unsure, you can check with us at


  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

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Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Article Submission: 0.00 (IDR)

Article Publication: 1850000.00 (IDR)
If this paper is accepted for publication, Pay publication fee to bank account please confirm by contact Managing Editor Whatsapp : +6281332373081.

If you do not have funds to pay such fees, you will have an opportunity to waive each fee. We do not want fees to prevent the publication of worthy work.