The Role of Algorithms and the Formation of Hate Speech Polarization on Twitter (Case Study of Video Content of KH Said Aqil Siradj's Visit after the Suicide Bomb Explosion at Makassar Cathedral)

Fidelis Aggiornamento Saintio


After the 2021 suicide bombing at the Makassar Cathedral church, the general chairman of PBNU, Said Aqil Siradj, visited the Makassar Cathedral to provide moral support to Catholics. The video of the
visit provoked reactions both in the digital realm and offline. Even though this visit had a positive nuance, on Twitter there were comments containing insults and hate speech. This research uses qualitative text analysis to analyze the comments that appear and
answer why video content that has a positive nuance and contains tolerance can trigger negative comments. The results of this research prove that polarized comments are not much influenced by the content. The content becomes a trigger so that like-minded people can confirm the beliefs they have long held. Apart from that, from this study, researchers see that there are things outside humans (non-humans) that shape the interpretation of social media users. This network of people with the same beliefs is united by features of social media platforms that bring users closer together,
namely comments, retweets and likes.


hate speech, algorithms, social media, polarization

Full Text:



Abriyanto, I. (2021, March 28). Makassar church attack was suicide bombing:

Top security minister.


Akmal, F. (2021, April 21). Kunjungi Gereja Katedral Makassar, Ketua PBNU

Doakan Para Korban Bom Bunuh Diri. Rakyatku.Com.


Azanella, L. (2021, March 29). Bom Gereja Katedral Makassar: Kronologi

Kejadian, Keterangan Polisi dan Sikap Presiden.



Baym, N. (2010). Personal Connections in the Digital Age (1st ed.). Polity.

Berlant, L. (2011). Cruel Optimism. Duke University Press.

Bliuc, A. M., McGarty, C., Hartley, L., & Muntele Hendres, D. (2012).

Manipulating national identity: The strategic use of rhetoric by supporters

and opponents of the “Cronulla riots” in Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies,

(12), 2174–2194.

Brown, A. (2015). Hate Speech Law A Philosophical Examination. Routledge.

Campbell, H. (2012). Digital religion : understanding religious practice in new

media worlds. Routledge.

Campbell, H. (2013). Digital Religion: Understanding Religious Practice in New

Media Worlds. Routledge.

Campbell, H. A., & Evolvi, G. (2020). Contextualizing Current Digital Religion

Research on Emerging Technologies. In Human Behavior and Emerging

Technologies (Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 5–17). John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Chaterine, R. (2021, December 13). Densus 88 Tangkap Buron Teroris, Diduga Terkait Bom Gereja Katedral Makassar.


Dean, J. (2010). Affective Networks. MediaTropes EJournal, II(2), 19–44.

Döveling, K., Harju, A. A., & Sommer, D. (2018). From Mediatized Emotion to

Digital Affect Cultures: New Technologies and Global Flows of Emotion.

Social Media and Society, 4(1).

Duile, T. (2021). Social Media in Research on a Marginalized Identity: The Case

of Atheism in Indonesia. ASEAS, 14(1), 121.

Echchaibi, N., & Hoover, S. (2014). The Third Spaces of Digital Religion (N.

Echchaibi & S. Hoover, Eds.; 1st ed., Vol. 1). Routledge.

Elwert, F., Evolvi, G., Neumaier, A., & De Wildt, K. (2023). Emoji and Religion

in the Twitter Discourses on the Notre Dame Cathedral Fire. Journal of

Religion, Media and Digital Culture, 11(2), 198–226.

Evolvi, G. (2018). Hate in a tweet: Exploring internet-based islamophobic

discourses. Religions, 9(10).

Evolvi, G. (2019). #Islamexit: inter-group antagonism on Twitter. Information

Communication and Society, 22(3), 386–401.

Giglietto, F., & Lee, Y. (2017). A Hashtag Worth a Thousand Words: Discursive

Strategies Around #JeNeSuisPasCharlie After the 2015 Charlie Hebdo

Shooting. Social Media and Society, 3(1).

Hanteer, O., Rossi, L., Vega, D. D., & Magnani, M. (2018, August 28). From

interaction to participation: the role of the imagined audience in social media

community detection and an application to political communication on

Twitter. IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social

Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM).

Hasani, I. (2016). The Decreasing Space for Non-Religious Expression in

Indonesia. In Religion, Law and Intolerance in Indonesia. Routledge.

Illman, R., & Sjö, S. (2015). Facebook as a Site for Inter-religious Encounters:

A Case Study from Finland. In Journal of Contemporary Religion (Vol. 30,

Issue 3, pp. 383–398). Routledge.

Magdy, W., Darwish, K., & Abokhodair, N. (2015). Quantifying Public Response

towards Islam on Twitter after Paris Attacks. ArXiv.

O’Leary, S. (1996). Cyberspace as Sacred Space: Communicating Religion on

Computer Netwroks. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 64,


Paat, Y. (2021, April 21). Kunjungi Katedral Makassar, Ketua PBNU: Jangan

Takut, Tetap Perkuat Toleransi. Investor.Id.


Papacharissi, Z. (2015). Affective Publics; Sentiment, Technology and Politics.

Oxford University Press.

Pennington, R. (2018). Making Space in Social Media: #MuslimWomensDay in

Twitter. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 42(3), 199–217.

Saputra, A. (2021, March 29). Newlywed suicide bombers identified in Makassar

church attack.


Schäfer, S. (2016). Forming “forbidden” identities online: Atheism in Indonesia.

Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 9(2), 253–268.

Senbel, S., Seigel, C., & Bryan, E. (2022). Religious Violence and Twitter:

Networks of Knowledge, Empathy and Fascination. Religions, 13(3).

Setiawan, H. (2022). Spiral Keheningan Melalui Tagar #indonesiaterserah

Jelang Idul Fitri 2020. Jurnal ILMU KOMUNIKASI, 19(1), 19–34.

Sunstein, C. R. (2007). 2.0. Princeton University Press.

Thomas, E., Mavor, K., & McGarty, C. (2011). Social identities facilitate and

encapsulate action-relevant constructs: A test of the social identity model of

collective action. Emma F. Thomas,1,2 Kenneth I. Mavor2 and Craig

McGarty1, 15(1), 75–88.

van Dijck, J. (2013). The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social

Media . Oxford University Press.

Wills, E. R., & Fecteau, A. (2016). Humor and identity on twitter:

#muslimcandyheartrejects as a digital space for identity construction.

Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 36(1), 32–45.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Office

Jurnal Nomosleca
Faculty of Social and Political Science University of Merdeka Malang

Image result for logo icon png
Jalan Terusan Raya Dieng No.62-64 Malang, 65146, Jawa TImur, Indonesia
Image result for icon png
Phone (0341) 580537
Image result for icon
Image result for icon png
Image result for icon png



Google Scholar        DOAJ        Garuda      ICI Copernicus


Turnitin     Crossref     Mendeley     Grammarly

Supported By:

Universitas Merdeka Malang Hasil gambar untuk apjiki

© 2020 {Jurnal Nomosleca}, All rights reserved. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Licensed under Creative Commons License a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License