The Influence of Social Comparison Orientation on Attitudinal Loyalty, Brand Happiness, and Willingness to Purchase a Masstige Brand

Rachman Tri Fridian, Burhanudin Burhanudin


Individuals often compare themselves to others because of the rise of social media, which can make them want to buy something like a luxury brand. However, reaching luxury brand will be difficult because in addition to the high price, the product is also made in limited quantities. Therefore, masstige brand is an alternative that companies can use. This study aims to determine the effect of social comparison orientation on willingness to purchase masstige brands and their impact on attitudinal loyalty and brand happiness. In this study, there were 211 participants. Structured equation modeling was used to analyze data. The results of analysis show social comparison orientation has an impact on willingness to purchase a masstige brand, resulting in attitudinal loyalty and brand happiness.


Attitudinal Loyalty, Brand Happiness, Masstige Brand, Social Comparison Orientation, Willingness to Purchase

Full Text:



Andraszewicz, S., Kaszás, D., Zeisberger, S., & Hölscher, C. (2022). The influence of upward social comparison on retail trading behavior. Social Comparison and Trading Behavior.

Bandyopadhyay, S., & Martell, M. (2007). Does attitudinal loyalty influence behavioral loyalty? A theoretical and empirical study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14(1), 35–44.

Bilro, R. G., Loureiro, S. M. C., & dos Santos, J. F. (2022). Masstige strategies on social media: The influence on sentiments and attitude toward the brand. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 46(4), 1113–1126.

Brakus, J. J., Chen, W., Schmitt, B., & Zarantonello, L. (2022). Experiences and happiness: The role of gender. Psychology & Marketing, 39(8), 1646–1659.

Burhanudin, B. (2023). Masstige marketing: addressing short‐term and long‐term happiness. International Journal of Consumer Studies.

Burhanudin, B., & Putri, S. S. (2023). The consequences of social comparison on price-quality schema, prestige sensitivity, and willingness to purchase. Jurnal Manajemen dan Inovasi (MANOVA), 6(2), 63–82.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Choi, A. (2020). Social comparison in fashion blogging:“Creative self” as the new genre in fashion communication. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 24(4), 651–665.

Dandis, A., & Wright, L. T. (2020). The effects of CARTER model on attitudinal loyalty in Islamic banks. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 12(2), 149–171.

Ehrenberg, A. S. C. (2000). Repeat buying. Journal of Empirical Generalisations in Marketing Science, 5(2).

Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. University of Akron Press.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

García-Salirrosas, E. E., & Acevedo-Duque, Á. (2022). PERVAINCONSA Scale to Measure the Consumer Behavior of Online Stores of MSMEs Engaged in the Sale of Clothing. Sustainability, 14(5), 2638.

Gerber, J. P. (2020). Social comparison theory. Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, 5004–5011.

Goyal, A. (2020). Consumer perceived associations of Masstige brands: An Indian perspective. Journal of Promotion Management, 27(3), 399–416.

Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L.-A. B. (2018). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Cengage learning.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2–24.

Hair, J. F. J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., Danks, N. P., & Ray, S. (2021). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Using R: A Workbook. Cham: Springer.

Handoyo, T. W., & Mani, L. (2021). Repurchase decision on iPhone in Indonesia; the influenced of social media between Utilitarian and Hedonic values in customer satisfaction. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(6), 4825–4834.

Hawkins, K., & Vel, P. (2013). Attitudinal loyalty, behavioural loyalty and social media: An introspection. The Marketing Review, 13(2), 125–141.

Hogg, M. K., Bruce, M., & Hough, K. (1999). Female images in advertising: the implications of social comparison for marketing. International Journal of Advertising, 18(4), 445–473.

Huwae, V., Tehuayo, E., Tamher, E. R., & Rumuar, F. H. M. (2023). Lifestyle and brand association on iphone smartphone purchase decisions in Ambon. Jurnal Ekonomi, 12(3), 47–54.

Hwang, J., & Han, H. (2014). Examining strategies for maximizing and utilizing brand prestige in the luxury cruise industry. Tourism Management, 40, 244–259.

Kassie, B. A., & Bang, J. (2022). Is it recession-proof? Masstige purchase intention: The moderating effect of perceived economic crisis. SHS Web of Conferences, 132, 01013.

Khan, M. T. (2013). Customers loyalty: Concept & definition (a review). International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 5(3), 168–191.

Kim, J.-E., Lloyd, S., Adebeshin, K., & Kang, J.-Y. M. (2019). Decoding fashion advertising symbolism in masstige and luxury brands. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 23(2), 277–295.

Kumar, A., Paul, J., & Starčević, S. (2021). Do brands make consumers happy?-A masstige theory perspective. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 102318.

Kumar, A., Paul, J., & Unnithan, A. B. (2020). ‘Masstige’marketing: A review, synthesis and research agenda. Journal of Business Research, 113, 384–398.

Le, M. H., & Nguyen, P. M. (2022). Integrating the theory of planned behavior and the norm activation model to investigate organic food purchase intention: evidence from Vietnam. Sustainability, 14(2), 816.

Majid, N., KW, N. I., & Hariyana, N. (2022). The role of self-concept to encourage Iphone users’ loyalty. Inovbiz: Jurnal Inovasi Bisnis, 9(2), 73–78.

Mechinda, P., Serirat, S., & Gulid, N. (2009). An examination of tourists’ attitudinal and behavioral loyalty: Comparison between domestic and international tourists. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 15(2), 129–148.

Ong, C. H., Md. Salleh, S., & Zien Yusoff, R. (2016). The role of emotional and rational trust in explaining attitudinal and behavioral loyalty: An insight into SME brands. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 18(1), 1–19.

Paul, J. (2015). Masstige marketing redefined and mapped: Introducing a pyramid model and MMS measure. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 33(5), 691-706.

Paul, J. (2018). Toward a’masstige’theory and strategy for marketing. European Journal of International Management, 12(5–6), 722–745.

Paul, J. (2019). Masstige model and measure for brand management. European Management Journal, 37(3), 299–312.

Pillai, K. G., & Nair, S. R. (2021). The effect of social comparison orientation on luxury purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research, 134, 89–100.

Purohit, S., & Radia, K. N. (2022). Conceptualizing masstige buying behavior: A mixed-method approach. Journal of Business Research, 142, 886–898.

Saini, S., & Singh, J. (2020a). A link between attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of service customers. Business Perspectives and Research, 8(2), 205–215.

Schnebelen, S., & Bruhn, M. (2018). An appraisal framework of the determinants and consequences of brand happiness. Psychology & Marketing, 35(2), 101–119.

Shahid, S., & Paul, J. (2021). Intrinsic motivation of luxury consumers in an emerging market. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 61, 102531.

Shankar, V., Smith, A. K., & Rangaswamy, A. (2003). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in online and offline environments. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(2), 153–175.

Shao, A., & Li, H. (2021). How do utilitarian versus hedonic products influence choice preferences: Mediating effect of social comparison. Psychology & Marketing, 38(8), 1250–1261.

Sun, G., Li, J., Cheng, Z., D’Alessandro, S., & Johnson, L. (2021). Consumer personality factors and iPhone consumption in China. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 20(4), 862–870.

Tuhkanen, O. (2022). The effects of perceived customer engagement activities on attitudinal loyalty, Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE), and crowd attendances at local football clubs.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan

Indexing by:

width="150" crossref
width=150;SINTA - Science and Technology Index


Index Copernicus International (ICI)


TurnitinMendeley - Library 101 Citation Management Tools - Research guides at  University of Toronto


In Collaboration with:


Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan

Management Department Faculty of Economics

University of Merdeka Malang

Terusan Dieng Street 62-64, Sukun, Malang City, East Java, 65146, Indonesia
Phone: 081332569864

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.