Structural Models of Customer Loyalty on Star Hotel in Medan, Indonesia

Dedek Kurniawan Gultom, Nadia Ika Purnama, Muhammad Arif


This study aims to analyze directly and indirectly the service quality and hotel image on consumer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The location of this study is in several star hotels in Medan such as Graha Serela, Santika Premier Dyandra, Polonia, Grand Swiss-Bell, JW Marriot, Garuda Plaza, and Grand Aston City Hall Hotel. Populations in this study are guests who staying at a Starred Hotel in Medan in 2019, while the sample is determined as many as 215 consumers (hotel guests). Data answering techniques used are interviews, questionnaires and documentation studies. The data analysis method used in this study is Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results of research show directly, the quality of service provided to Consumer Satisfaction, Service Quality affect on Customer Loyalty, Hotel Image against Consumer Satisfaction, Hotel Image affect Customer Loyalty and Consumer Satisfaction against Customer Loyalty. Directly, the service quality and hotel image of customer loyalty through customer satisfaction.


Customer Loyalty; Image, Satisfaction; Service Quality

Full Text:



Akbar, S., Som, A. P. M., Wadood, F., & Alzaidiyeen, N. J. (2010). Revitalization Of Service Quality To Gain Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(6), 113–122.

Al-Rousan, Ramzi, M., & Mohamed, B. (2010). Customer Loyalty and the Impacts of Service Quality: The Case of Five Star Hotels in Jordan International. International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering, 4(7), 1702–1708.

Alauddin, M., Ahsan, S. M. H., Mowla, M. M., Islam, M. M., & Hossain, M. M. (2019). Investigating the Relationship between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Hotel Industry: Bangladesh Perspective. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: A Administration and Management, 19(1), 29–35.

Alber, R. F. (2017). Anteseden Customer Loyalty. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 10(2), 293–310.

Alireza, F., Ali, K., & Aram, F. (2011). How Quality, Value, Image And Satisfaction Create Loyalty At An Iran Telecom. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(8), 271–279.

Azhar, M. E., Jufrizen, Prayogi, M. A., & Sari, M. (2018). The Role Of Marketing Mix And Service Quality On Tourist Satisfaction And Loyalty At Samosir. Revista de Turism-Studii Si Cercetari in Turism, 26.

Azhar, M. E., & Jufrizen, J. (2017). The Analysis of The Tourist Loyalty Determinant In the Area of Toba Lake. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 8(10), 20826–20832.

Azhar, M. E., Jufrizen, J., Prayogi, M. A., & Sari, M. (2019). Effect of Marketing Mix and Service Quality on Tourist Satisfaction. In Proceeding of The 3rd International Conference on Accounting, Business & Economics (UII-ICABE 2019) (pp. 133–140).

Banjarnahor, J. (2017). Anteseden Customer Satisfaction dan Dampaknya Pada Purchase Intention. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 10(1), 141–156.

Batista, M. da G., Couto, J. P., Botelho, D., & Faias, C. (2014). Tourist satisfaction and loyalty in the hotel business: An application to the island of São Miguel, Azores. Tourism & Management Studies, 10(1), 16–23.

Bhote, K. R. (1996). Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty. New York: AMACOM.

Bitner, M. J., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1996). Services Marketing. Boston: MCGraw-Hill.

Brown, R. M., & Mazzarol, T. W. (2009). The Importance of Institutional Image To Student Satisfaction And Loyalty Within Higher Education. Higher Education, 58(1), 81–95.

Bucak, T. (2014). The Effect of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction: A Research on Hotel Businesses. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(1), 1–12.

Caruana, A. (2002). Service loyalty: The Effects of Service Quality And The Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 36(7/8), 811–828.

Chen, C.-F., & Tsai, D. C. (2007). How Destination Image and Evaluative Factors Affect Behavioral Intentions. Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115–1122.

Chen, Y. S., & Japarianto, E. (2014). Pengaruh Kepuasan, Hambatan Berpindah Dan Penyediaan Fasilitas Terhadap Customer Loyalty Di Hotel Novotel Surabaya. Jurnal Strategi Pemasaran, 2(1), 1–7.

Cheng, B.-L., & Rashid, M. Z. A. (2013). Service Quality and the Mediating Effect of Corporate Image on the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in the Malaysian Hotel Industry. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 15(2), 99–112.

Chien, L., & Chi, S. (2019). Corporate image as a mediator between service quality and customer satisfaction: difference across categorized exhibitors. Heliyon, 5. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019. e01307

Christina, F. S. (2014). Pengaruh Service Quality dan Citra Korporasi Terhadap Kesetiaan Pelanggan Melalui Kepuasan Pelanggan. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 7(2), 91–124.

Clemes, M. D., Wu, J. H.-C., Hu, B.-D., & Gan, C. (2009). An Empirical Study Of Behaviour Intentions In Taiwan Hotel Industry. Innovative Marketing, 5(3), 30–50.

Cravens, D. W., & Piercy, N. . (2013). Strategic Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill International Edition.

Djamereng, A., Basalamah, S., Mursalim, & Dani, I. (2019). No Title. International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Research, 3(03), 207–220.

Dube, L., Renaghan, L. M., & Miller, J. M. (1994). Measuring customer satisfaction for strategic management. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 35(1), 39–47.

Ganguli, S., & Roy, S. K. (2011). Generic technology‐based service quality dimensions in banking. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 29(2), 168–189.

Ghozali, I. (2008). Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan Program SPSS. Semarang: BP- Universitas Diponegoro.

Giovanis, A., Athanasopoulou, P., & Tsoukatos, E. (2015). The role of service fairness in the service quality – relationship quality – customer loyalty chain. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 25(6), 744–776.

Griffin, J. (2010). Customer Loyalty How To Earn it, How Keep It I. Kentucky: McGraw – Hill.

Hoq, M. Z., Amin, M., & Rumki, N. S. (2010). The Effect of Trust, Customer Satisfaction and Image on Customers’ Loyalty in Islamic Banking Sector. South Asian Journal of Management, 17(1), 70–93.

Hsu, C. H. C., & Cai, L. (2009). Brand Knowledge, Trust and Loyalty – A Conceptual Model of Destination Branding. In International CHRIE Conference-Refereed Track (pp. 1–8).

Hu, Y.-J. (2011). How Brand Equity, Marketing Mix Strategy, And Service Quality Affect Customer Loyalty: The Case Of Retail Chain Stores In Taiwan. The International Journal of Organization Innovation, 4(1), 59–73.

Hurriyati, R. (2005). Bauran Pemasaran dan Customer Loyalty. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Iqbal, M. S., Hassan, M. U., & Sharif, S. (2017). Interrelationship among Corporate Image, Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty: Testing the moderating impact of Complaint Handling. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(11), 667–688. 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3506

Irina, I., & Zaiţ, A. (2016). Corporate reputation, satisfaction and loyalty - analysis of possible causal relationships. Romanian Journal of Marketing, (2), 47–56.

Ismail, I., Haron, H., Ibrahim, D. N., & Isa, S. M. (2006). Service Quality, Client Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Audit Firms: Perceptions Of Malaysian Public Listed Companies. Managerial Auditing Journal, 21(7), 738–756.

Jasfar, F., & Kristaung, R. (2012). Sinergi Pemasaran Jasa Ritel. Jakarta: Universitas Trisakti Jakarta.

Kandampully, J., & Hu, H. (2007). Do Hoteliers Need To Manage Image To Retain Loyal Customers? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), 435–443.

Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(6), 346–351.

Karyose, H., Astuti, W., & Ferdiansjah, A. (2017). Customer Loyalty: The Effect of Service Quality, Corporate Image, Customer Relationship Marketing and Customer Satisfaction as Intervening Variable-An Empirical Analysis of Bank Customers in Malang City. Marketing and Branding Research, 4(2017), 336–347.

Kheng, L. L., Mohamad, O., Ramayah, T., & Mosahab, R. (2010). The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty: A Study of Banks in Penang, Malaysia. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 2(2), 57–66.

Kim, H.-B., & Kim, W. G. (2005). The Relationship Between Brand Equty and Firms Performance in Luxury Hotels and Chain Restaurant. Woo GonKim, 26(4), 549–560.

Kim, H. D., & Lough, N. (2007). An Investigation Into Relationships Among Constructs of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, And Repurchase Intention in Korean Private Golf Courses. Journal of Research, 2(1), 14–22.

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2016). Marketing Management (15th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Laksana, F. (2008). Manajemen Pemasaran. Jakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Ledden, L., Kalafatis, S. P., & Mathioudakis, A. (2011). The idiosyncratic behaviour of service quality, value, satisfaction, and intention to recommend in higher education: An empirical examination. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(11–12), 1232–1260.

Liat, C. B., Mansori, S., Chuan, G. C., & Imrie, B. C. (2017). Hotel Service Recovery and Service Quality: Influences of Corporate Image and Generational Differences in the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty. Journal of Global Marketing, 0(0), 1–10. 10.1080/08911762.2016.1262932

Lovelock, C. H., & Wright, L. K. (2007). Manajemen Pemasaran Jasa. Jakarta: PT Indeks.

Lunarindiah, G. (2016). The Influence of Corporate Image, Service Quality, Perceived Value Toward Student Satisfaction and Student Loyalty. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 9(2), 239–252.

Lupiyoadi, R., & Hamdani, A. (2006). Manajemen Pemasaran Jasa. (2, Ed.). Jakarta: Salemba Empat.

Majid, M. A. A., Samsudin, A., Noorkhizan, M. H. I., Zaki, M. I. M., & Bakar, A. M. F. A. (2018). Service Quality, Food Quality, Image and Customer loyalty: An Empirical Study at a Hotel Restaurant. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(10), 1432–1446. 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i10/5310

Markovic, S., Jankovic, S. R., & Segaric, K. (2010). Does Restaurant Performance Meet Customers’ Expectations? An Assessment of Restaurant Service Quality Using a Modified Dineserv Approach. Tourism & Hospitality Management, 16(2), 181–195.

Mazanec, J. A. (1995). Positioning analysis with self – organising maps: An exploratory study on luxury hotels. The Cornell H. R. A. Quarterly, 36(6), 80–95.

Mohajerani, P., & Miremadi, A. (2012). Customer Satisfaction Modeling In Hotel Industry: A Case Study of Kish Island In Iran. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(3), 134–152.

Mohamad, H. A. D., Yazid, M. S. A., Khatib, A., & Azam, S. M. F. (2017). Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction And Customer Loyalty of the Hotel Industry in United Arab Emirates (UAE): a Measurement Model. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 2(4), 1–26. 10.5281/zenodo.1066572

Mutmainnah. (2017). Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan dan Citra Perusahaan Terhadap Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Nasabah. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 10(2), 201–216.

Nasution, M. I., Fahmi, M., Jufrizen, J., Muslih, M., & Prayogi, M. A. (2020). The Quality of Small and Medium Enterprises Performance Using the Structural Equation Model-Part Least Square (SEM-PLS). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1477(2020), 1–7.

Nurcahyo, R., Fitriyani, A., & Hudda, I. N. (2017). The Influence of Facility and Service Quality towards Customer Satisfaction and Its Impact on Customer Loyalty in Borobudur Hotel in Jakarta. Binus Business Review, 8(1), 23–29. 10.21512/bbr.v8i1.1790

Oliver, R. L. (2010). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perpective on The Customer. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ostrowsky, P. L., O’Brien, T. V, & O’Brien, T. V. (1993). Service quality and customer satisfaction in the commercial airline industry. Journal of Travel Research, 33(2), 16–24.

Pinzón, S. O., & Saura, I. G. (2011). National index of consumer satisfaction. A proposal for a review of literature. Cuadernos de Administración, 24(43), 35–57.

Purbandari, E., Sugandini, D., & Sutiono, H. T. (2018). Word Of Mouth Sebagai Konsekuensi Kepuasan Pelanggan. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 11(1), 111–124.

Radiman, R., Gunawan, A., Wahyuni, S. F., & Jufrizen, J. (2018). The Effect of Marketing Mix, Service Quality, Islamic Values and Institutional Image on Students’ Satisfaction and Loyalty. Expert Journal of Marketing, 6(2), 95–105.

Rahma, L. (2015). Antesen Customer Loyalty Pada Budget Hotel. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 8(2), 55–70.

Ranjbarian, B., Sanayei, A., Kaboli, M. R., & Hadadian, A. (2012). An Analysis of Brand Image, Perceived Quality, Customer Satisfaction And Re-purchase Intention In Iranian Department Stores. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(6), 40–48.

Ratnasari, R. T., & Aksa, M. (2011). Manajemen Pemasaran Jasa. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia.

Saleem, H., & Raja, N. S. (2014). The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty and Brand Image: Evidence from Hotel Industry of Pakistan. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 16(1), 117–122.

Santoso, S. (2012). Analisis SEM Menggunakan AMOS. Jakarta: PT Elek Media Komputindo.

Selnes, F. (1993). An Examination of the Effect of Product Performance on Brand Reputation, Satisfaction and Loyalty. European Journal of Marketin, 27(9), 19–35.

Sumarwan, U. (2012). Riset Pemasaran dan Konsumen. Bogor: IPB Press.

Supranto, J. (2011). Pengukuran Tingkat Kepuasan Pelanggan Untuk Menaikkan Pangsa Pasar (4th ed.). Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta.

Susanti, C. E. (2019). The Effect of Service Quality and Perceived Price Fairness on Consumer Loyalty through Consumer Satisfaction on Budget Hotel in East Java. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 12(6), 1–7. 10.17485/ijst/2019/v12i6/141954

Susanti, E. (2018). Kualitas Layanan Internal yang Memengaruhi Kepuasan Nasabah dengan Menggunakan Kualitas Layanan Eksternal sebagai Variabel Mediasi. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 11(1), 95–110.

Sutisna. (2001). Perilaku Pelanggan Dan Komunikasi Pemasaran (Pertama). Bandung: PT Remadja Rosdakarya.

Tefera, O., & Govender, K. (2015). Hotel Grading, Service Quality, Satisfaction and Loyalty – Proposing a Theoretical Model and Relationship. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 4(Special Edition), 1–17.

Tjiptono, F. (2012). Service Management Mewujdukan Pelayanan Prima. Yogyakarta: PT Andi Offset.

Torres‐Moraga, E., Vásquez‐Parraga, A. Z., & Zamora‐González, J. (2008). Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty: Start With The Product, Culminate With The Brand. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(5), 302–313.

Venkateswarlu, P., Ranga, V., & Sreedhar, A. (2015). Antecedents of customer loyalty in hospitals. The IUP Journal of Marketing Management, 14(4), 7–19.

Widyawati, N. (2008). Pengaruh Kepercayaan Dan Komitmen Serta Bauran Pemasaran Jasa Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Di Hotel Zakiah Medan. EKUITAS : Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Keuangan, 12(1), 74–96.

Woodside, A. W., Frey, L. L., & Daly, R. T. (1997). Linking service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioural intention. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 9(4), 5–17.

Yamit, Z. (2013). Manajemen Kualitas Produk & Jasa. Yogyakarta: Ekonisia.

Yoon, E., Guffey, H. J., & Kijewski, V. (1993). No Title. Journal of Bussiness Reseach, 27(3), 215–228.

Zakiy, M. (2019). Citra Perusahaan Sebagai Variabel Pemoderasi Pengaruh Layanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pasien dan Niat Beralih. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Pemasaran Jasa, 12(1), 51–64.

Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and Truths about Mediation Analysis. Journal of Consumer Reasearch, Inc, 37(August), 197–206. 10.1086/651257



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Bisnis dan Manajemen
Faculty of Social and Political Science University of Merdeka Malang

Mailling Address:
  • Address: Terusan Dieng Street 62-64 Malang, Indonesia
  • Website:
  • Email:
  • Phone: +62 813-9393-3938
Free counters!

View Stat JBM