ANALISIS TERHADAP KEBIJAKAN KRIMINAL DALAM PENANGGULANGAN TINDAK PIDANA EKONOMI INDONESIA

Totok Sugiarto

Abstract


Crime was not always criminal. Crime was a criminal when the evil conduct had been decided as the criminal (hadbeen criminalized) by criminal law. It meant that the evil conduct could only get a punishment if (s) he was stated as the evil conduct by the criminal law. Although a crime had not been criminalized, it did not mean the action could not get a sanction. If it was considered as an evil and inflicted people, the actor had to get social sanction from the society. In Juridical way, civil law had also given a right to the party who was inflicted to claim compensation. Economy criminal act at First was an ethic violation. There were some authors that generalizing moral and ethic, as what was stated by Muhammad Said, ethic is identical with moral which is in Latinmos (plural form: mores) that also means custom or way of life. Thus, the two words (ethicand moral) showed how to something based on the tradition or custom because of the agreement to the practice of a group of people. K. Bertens gave the meaning of ethic, as the moral values and norms which became a guide for someone or a group of people in doing something. Thus, ethic here etymologically was the same as moral. However, there was a substance which was basically different. It said that ethic was a moral implication and as a part of action involved in moral value.

Bahwasanya kejahatan tidak selalu merupakan tindak pidana. Kejahatan merupakantindak pidana ketika perilaku jahat (evil conduct) tersebut telah ditetapkan sebagaitindak pidana (telah dikriminalisasi) oleh suatu undang-undang pidana. Artinya,pelaku suatu kejahatan hanya dapat dijatuhi sanksi pidana apabila perilaku jahattersebut telah dinyatakan sebagai tindak pidana oleh undang-undang pidana.Meskipun suatu kejahatan belum dikriminalisasi, tidak berarti perbuatan tersebuttidak dapat dikenakan sanksi. Apabila perilaku itu dinilai sebagai perilaku yangjahat dan atau merugikan anggota masyarakat, maka pelakunya pasti memperolehsanksi sosial dari mayarakat. Secara yuridis, hukum perdata juga telah memberikanhak kepada pihak yang dirugikan untuk menuntut ganti rugi, bila perilaku jahat(kejahatan) tersebut merugikan orang lain.Tindak pidana ekonomi pada awalnya merupakan suatu bentuk pelanggaranterhadap etika. Ada beberapa penulis yang mengidentikkan atau menyamakan moral dengan etika, seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Muhammad Said, etika itu identikdengan kata moral dari bahasa latin mos (jamaknya mores) yang juga berartiadat istiadat atau cara hidup. Jadi, kedua kata tersebut (etika dan moral) menunjukkancara berbuatyang menjadi adat karena persetujuan untuk praktek sekelompok manusia. K. Bertens mengartikan etika, sebagai nilai-nilai dan norma-norma moralyang menjadi pegangan bagi seseorang atau suatu kelompok dalam mengatur tingkah lakunya. Oleh karena itu, etika disini secara etimologis disamakan denganmoral, namun ada substansi yang secara mendasar berbeda, yakni etika merupakanimplikasi moral dan sebagai suatu bagian perbuatan yang tercakup dalam nilai moral.


Keywords


Kebijakan Kriminal, Penanggulangan Tindak Pidana Ekonomi, Sistem Hukum Pidana Indonesia

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